- What is Urinalysis?
- When is Urinalysis performed?
- What preparation is needed for Urinalysis?
- How is Urinalysis performed?
- How are the results of Urinalysis interpreted?
It is a simple laboratory testing of urine sample, which can help detect and identify disorders/diseases involving many parts of the body; more specifically, disorders/diseases of the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder) and liver, as well as Diabetes Mellitus.
The General Urine Test is useful in many cases. For example:
- as routine check-up in adults and children
- when there are symptoms of some urinary tract infection (UTI) (dysurea, urinary frequency).
- when there is hematuria.
Individuals presenting high risk for renal disease should undergo general urine test as a routine check (for prevention), at regular intervals as determined by the physician. This risk is related to:
- Diabetes Mellitus
- High blood pressure
- Family history of chronic renal disease
- Elderly individuals
A small amount of urine (about 20ml) should be collected in a sterile (completely clean) urine collecting container. It is preferable to collect the first morning urine; though a random urine sample can also be used. The urine sample should be as fresh as possible when tested. You should be aware that some drugs and nutritional supplements may influence the test results. If you take vitamin C, antibiotics and drugs for Parkinson’s disease, you should inform your physician. The same applies in case you have high fever or heavy physical exercise has preceded.
Once the urine sample obtained, it is taken to the biochemical laboratory. The sample is then examined microscopically with the use of special analyzers.
The urine test results are classified in 3 categories:
General urine features
- Color: normal urine has a light yellow to dark amber color.
- Appearance: Urine is normally clear. If containing pus, blood or salts, it appears cloudy.
- Odor: Urine normally does not have a very strong smell. If you get a whiff of something particularly pungent, you might have a urinary infection or urinary stones, which can create an ammonia-like odor.
- Specific gravity: normal values of urine specific gravity range from 1010-1025.
- Ph: The normal urine Ph value is around 6.0
- Hematuria The presence of red blood cells in the urine has a high diagnostic significance. It may be related to the existence of renal stones (calculi), urinary infections, tumors etc.
- Pyuria. Presence of pus in the urine is usually related to urinary infections.
- Microorganisms. Presence of microorganisms in the urine may be related to urinary infection. However, there are cases in which microbes are not pathogenic.
- Crystals. Chemicals are formed in the urine and, if considerably grown, they may form stones in the urinary tract.
Normal urine does not contain sugar, protein, ketones, haemoglobulin and bile pigments. If these substances are traced in the urine, the condition is considered to be abnormal and has to be evaluated by the physician.